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The most commonly used medium for recording sound. It is manufactured in various widths (1/4, 1/2 and one inch primarily) and thicknesses (3.0, 1.5, 1 and .5 mil where 1 mil = 1/1000 inch) for different purposes, which now include video and digital recording.
The tonal QUALITY or TIMBRE of a sound. The term is usually used in a subjective, descriptive manner, often with such adjectives as 'full' or 'rich'.
A form of STEREOPHONIC or multi-channel reproduction in which the sound source is spread around the listener by the use of four tracks or CHANNELs in recording or transmission and the use of four (or more) LOUDSPEAKERs. Conventional music or speech may be recorded in this way, in which case the speakers behind the listener add REVERBERATION to the original sound or are simply out of PHASE with respect to the front ones; or new works may be composed in which all tracks carry original material.
The use of reflected SOUND WAVEs for obtaining environmental information. Certain animals, such as the bat and the porpoise, emit pulses of extremely high frequency sound (up to 50 kHz for bats, and up to 170 kHz for porpoises and whales) in narrow, intense streams. The REFLECTION, or ECHO, of these sounds supplies information regarding the nature and location of objects in the environment. When an emission of varying frequency is used, such as with bats, the echoes, travelling varying distances to the ear, are heard as different frequencies in each ear, thus supplying directional information.