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(French: concrete music) A development introduced in Paris in 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer at the studio of the French Radio (O.R.T.F.). Its aim was to replace traditional musical material with recorded (i.e. concrete) sounds which were then manipulated by FILTERing, tape reversal, TAPE LOOPs, speed changes, tape SPLICEs, or other electronic means. The source of all sounds, however, was environmental. The experimental side of this study developed the concept of l'objet sonore.
Sound at frequencies above the audible range, namely above 20 kHz, audible only to various non-human species. Because of its very short WAVELENGTH in the megahertz range, ultrasound is used as a safe alternative to X-ray photography in medical diagnosis. Ultrasound scanning is sometimes called sonography.
A term used in broadcasting and recording to indicate a spatial movement of a SIGNAL. A sound is panned when it is moved smoothly from one location (e.g. LOUDSPEAKER or CHANNEL) to another. This is accomplished by using various ATTENUATORs or POTENTIOMETERs, sometimes combined into a single unit called a pan-pot or panoramic divider in order to control the AMPLITUDE of the signal in each channel.
The adjustment of the FREQUENCY of strings or pipes of musical instruments to conform to a given SCALE, or the adjustment of other instruments to such a tuned instrument.