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The psychological measure of the magnitude of a SOUND or SOUND OBJECT including its SPECTRUM (frequency and intensity), harmonic content, duration and spatial properties.
The difference in SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL between the saturation or overload level and the BACKGROUND NOISE level of an acoustic or electroacoustic system, measured in DECIBELs. This RANGE may be expressed as a SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO for maximum output.
The use of reflected SOUND WAVEs for obtaining environmental information. Certain animals, such as the bat and the porpoise, emit pulses of extremely high frequency sound (up to 50 kHz for bats, and up to 170 kHz for porpoises and whales) in narrow, intense streams. The REFLECTION, or ECHO, of these sounds supplies information regarding the nature and location of objects in the environment. When an emission of varying frequency is used, such as with bats, the echoes, travelling varying distances to the ear, are heard as different frequencies in each ear, thus supplying directional information.
A TONE having more than a single FREQUENCY component. For instance, a tone consisting of a FUNDAMENTAL and OVERTONEs or HARMONICs, may be said to be complex.