(French: concrete music) A development introduced in Paris in 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer at the studio of the French Radio (O.R.T.F.). Its aim was to replace traditional musical material with recorded (i.e. concrete) sounds which were then manipulated by FILTERing, tape reversal, TAPE LOOPs, speed changes, tape SPLICEs, or other electronic means. The source of all sounds, however, was environmental. The experimental side of this study developed the concept of l'objet sonore.
If a sound is a complex of many TONEs of various FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE and PHASE, repeating together in a basic CYCLE of definite frequency, the fundamental is the lowest frequency of this complex and corresponds to the unique PITCH heard in such a COMPLEX TONE.
Any VIBRATION in the air or other medium, some types of which are able to cause a sensation of hearing.
The tonal QUALITY or TIMBRE of a sound. The term is usually used in a subjective, descriptive manner, often with such adjectives as 'full' or 'rich'.