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(Greek: monos = one; phone = sound) A form of reproduction which records, transmits and reproduces the original sound along a single CHANNEL, regardless of the number of loudspeakers used. All components of the sound are combined or MIXed into one SIGNAL, including AMBIENCE and REVERBERATION, and therefore only the sense of depth may be simulated or reproduced.
An ordering of a system of PITCHes, usually in ascending FREQUENCY order. The distance between any two pitches or NOTEs is called an interval.
(French: concrete music) A development introduced in Paris in 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer at the studio of the French Radio (O.R.T.F.). Its aim was to replace traditional musical material with recorded (i.e. concrete) sounds which were then manipulated by FILTERing, tape reversal, TAPE LOOPs, speed changes, tape SPLICEs, or other electronic means. The source of all sounds, however, was environmental. The experimental side of this study developed the concept of l'objet sonore.
If two TONEs are about 15 Hertz or less apart, INTERFERENCE will result from their similar though not exactly identical frequencies. Gradually they will move out of PHASE until at 180° destructive interference results, producing diminished loudness. When they move back into phase, constructive interference will produce increased loudness. Thus, beats are a form of AMPLITUDE MODULATION. As two frequencies are brought closer together, the beats will gradually slow down and disappear when they become identical.