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Any process that encourages a person to listen more discriminately, particularly to sounds of the environment. The term was originally used by R.M. Schafer in his book Ear Cleaning (Toronto, BMI Canada, 1967) to contrast with the traditional practice of ear training in music education which concentrates on the identification and reproduction of intervals, chords, melodies and so on.
(French: concrete music) A development introduced in Paris in 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer at the studio of the French Radio (O.R.T.F.). Its aim was to replace traditional musical material with recorded (i.e. concrete) sounds which were then manipulated by FILTERing, tape reversal, TAPE LOOPs, speed changes, tape SPLICEs, or other electronic means. The source of all sounds, however, was environmental. The experimental side of this study developed the concept of l'objet sonore.
If a sound is a complex of many TONEs of various FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE and PHASE, repeating together in a basic CYCLE of definite frequency, the fundamental is the lowest frequency of this complex and corresponds to the unique PITCH heard in such a COMPLEX TONE.
The ability to judge PITCH absolutely, without reference to another pitch or frequency. Also called absolute pitch. Perfect pitch appears to be an innate ability of some individuals, whereas related skills, such as remembered pitch or relative pitch which use other pitches as references, can be learned through musical practice.