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(French: concrete music) A development introduced in Paris in 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer at the studio of the French Radio (O.R.T.F.). Its aim was to replace traditional musical material with recorded (i.e. concrete) sounds which were then manipulated by FILTERing, tape reversal, TAPE LOOPs, speed changes, tape SPLICEs, or other electronic means. The source of all sounds, however, was environmental. The experimental side of this study developed the concept of l'objet sonore.
(German: artificial head). A STEREOPHONIC recording system developed in Germany which employs an artificial head sitting on a resonator similar to a chest cavity. The recording MICROPHONEs are situated within the head, inside an anatomically correct ear canal, at the point where the human eardrum is located. Artificial PINNAE are carefully designed for accurate reflection of the incoming sound in order to achieve the good front-back and height-depth perspective for which the technique is noted.
A form of STEREOPHONIC or multi-channel reproduction in which the sound source is spread around the listener by the use of four tracks or CHANNELs in recording or transmission and the use of four (or more) LOUDSPEAKERs. Conventional music or speech may be recorded in this way, in which case the speakers behind the listener add REVERBERATION to the original sound or are simply out of PHASE with respect to the front ones; or new works may be composed in which all tracks carry original material.
Any VIBRATION in the air or other medium, some types of which are able to cause a sensation of hearing.