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Reverberation is a result of multiple REFLECTIONs. A SOUND WAVE in an enclosed or semi-enclosed environment will be broken up as it is bounced back and forth among the reflecting surfaces. Reverberation is, in effect, a multiplicity of ECHOes whose speed of repetition is too quick for them to be perceived as separate from one another. W.C. Sabine established the official period of reverberation as the time required by a sound in a space to decrease to one-millionth of its original strength.
The atmosphere exerts pressure on all objects in it. When a vibrating body moves in air, it creates slight disturbances of the AMBIENT atmospheric pressure. The AMPLITUDE of these pressure variations is called the sound pressure variation, whereas the effective pressure variation is 0.707 the maximum value. The oscillating variations in sound pressure (called the WAVEFORM of the sound) PROPAGATE in the form of a SOUND WAVE.
The FREQUENCY content of a sound or audio SIGNAL, often displayed as a graphic representation of amplitude against frequency. The spectrum of a sound is a primary determinant of its perceived TIMBRE.
Sound at frequencies above the audible range, namely above 20 kHz, audible only to various non-human species. Because of its very short WAVELENGTH in the megahertz range, ultrasound is used as a safe alternative to X-ray photography in medical diagnosis. Ultrasound scanning is sometimes called sonography.