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An adjective describing any process involving the transfer of a SIGNAL from acoustic to electrical form, or vice versa. Most commonly, TRANSDUCERs such as the MICROPHONE or LOUDSPEAKER are examples of this process.
If a sound is a complex of many TONEs of various FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE and PHASE, repeating together in a basic CYCLE of definite frequency, the fundamental is the lowest frequency of this complex and corresponds to the unique PITCH heard in such a COMPLEX TONE.
The device, successor to the MAGNETIC WIRE recorder, which since the 1940s (when it was called the sound mirror) has been the most commonly used means of storing and reproducing an AUDIO signal.
The use of reflected SOUND WAVEs for obtaining environmental information. Certain animals, such as the bat and the porpoise, emit pulses of extremely high frequency sound (up to 50 kHz for bats, and up to 170 kHz for porpoises and whales) in narrow, intense streams. The REFLECTION, or ECHO, of these sounds supplies information regarding the nature and location of objects in the environment. When an emission of varying frequency is used, such as with bats, the echoes, travelling varying distances to the ear, are heard as different frequencies in each ear, thus supplying directional information.